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Belle II: The particle detector to better understand the universe


Theoretical dark matter is one of the most elusive substances in the world and an important puzzle piece to decode the complexities of the universe’s movement and structure. Even the most practiced Standard Model, which is the golden rule for particle behaviour, does not explain all physics mysteries.

Enter: Belle II is a new particle detector being developed to help researchers try to understand physics beyond the Standard Model, including dark matter. It is an updated and ultra-precise version of the original Japanese Belle detector, which confirmed the existence of other particles that do not fit the Standard Model.

This latest version is likely to collect 50 times more data than the original version (approximately 25 petabytes per year), proving an even bigger challenge than before.

To date, the Belle II experiment is at its third phase and connects around 26 countries and 120 institutions. It deals with the project of a record-breaking collider, named SuperKEKB, investigating some very special particles called B mesons, which spontaneously transform into their own antiparticles and back. Ronald Kotulak, writing for the Chicago Tribune, called the particle “bizarre” and that it “may open the door to a new era of physics” with its proven interactions within the “spooky realm of antimatter”.

The experiment is designed to record data at SuperKEKB and investigate matter-antimatter asymmetries using the B mesons, and as such designed to explore new physics beyond standard practices of particle physics.


Transferring vast amounts of data across long distances requires special software tools and really powerful and reliable networks. GÉANT Data Transfer Nodes (DTN) are dedicated high powerful computer servers located in London and Paris, with optimised operating systems and specialised network cards to analyse, test and provide support to long-haul data transfers.

The GÉANT DTN service has therefore become vital for scientists to test data transfer applications, software, protocols, and strategies from their experimental locations to two main central European locations. The GÉANT Research Engagement team liaises with the researchers, helping them to recreate the same software and computing environment in our test locations and then run detailed measurements with them to assess the quality of the data transfer.